- A Web browser

If you see a blue "Sign In" button at the top right, click it and log into a Google account.https://colab.research.google.com/

From the menu, click **File**, "**New notebook**".

As shown below, all 1000 of the tested points are on the edge for dimansions of 1000 and higher.

import random random.seed(999) print("Dimensions \t Edge points out of 1000") for dimensions in [2,3,10,30,100,300,1000,3000,10000]: edge_points = 0 for p in range(1000): on_edge = 0 for x in range(dimensions): if random.random() < 0.01: on_edge = 1 edge_points += on_edge print(dimensions, "\t\t", edge_points)

## Flag ML 115.1: 200 Dimensions (5 pts)

Repeat the process above, but use 3000 samples and test only 200 dimensions.Leave the random.seed at 999, to ensure that you get the expected flag value.

The flag is covered by a green rectangle in the image below.

As shown below, the distance grows with dimensionality.

import random, math random.seed(999) print("Dimensions \t Avg Distance Between Points") for dimensions in [2, 3, 10, 100, 1_000, 10_000, 100_000, 1_000_000]: total_distance = 0 for p in range(100): dist2 = 0 for x in range(dimensions): dist2 += (random.random() - random.random())**2 total_distance += math.sqrt(dist2) formatted_dimensions = "{:,}".format(dimensions) print(formatted_dimensions.rjust(9), "\t\t", "{:.2f}".format(total_distance/100.0))

## Flag ML 115.2: 50,000 Dimensions (5 pts)

Repeat the process above, but use 300 pairs of points and test only 50,000 dimensions.Make sure you divide the total distance by 300 to get the average distance.

Leave the random.seed at 999, to ensure that you get the expected flag value.

The flag is covered by a green rectangle in the image below.

The first few images appear, As shown below.

from sklearn.datasets import fetch_openml import numpy as np mnist = fetch_openml('mnist_784', as_frame=False, parser="auto") X_train, y_train = mnist.data[:60_000], mnist.target[:60_000] X_test, y_test = mnist.data[60_000:], mnist.target[60_000:] import matplotlib.pyplot as plt def plot_digit(image_data): image = image_data.reshape(28, 28) plt.imshow(image, cmap="binary") plt.axis("off") plt.figure(figsize=(4, 4)) for idx, image_data in enumerate(X_train[:16]): plt.subplot(4, 4, idx + 1) plot_digit(image_data) plt.subplots_adjust(wspace=0, hspace=0) plt.show()

Execute these commands to find the number of dimensions needed to fit 95% of the variance:

As shown below, the answer is 154 dimensions.

from sklearn.decomposition import PCA pca = PCA() pca.fit(X_train) cumsum = np.cumsum(pca.explained_variance_ratio_) d = np.argmax(cumsum >= 0.95) + 1 print(d)

## Flag ML 115.3: 99% of the Variance (5 pts)

Repeat the process above, but explain 99% of the variance.The flag is the number of dimensions required.

This model
uses RandomizedSearchCV to find a good combination of hyperparameters
for both PCA and the random forest classifier. The only two hyperparameters
tested are **pca__n_components** and **randomforestclassifier__n_estimators**.

To speed things up, we use only the 100 training images and only perform 10 iterations.

As shown below, best fit uses 465 estimators and only 23 dimensions, and achieves an accuracy over 85%.

from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestClassifier from sklearn.model_selection import RandomizedSearchCV from sklearn.pipeline import make_pipeline from sklearn.metrics import accuracy_score clf = make_pipeline(PCA(random_state=42), RandomForestClassifier(random_state=42)) param_distrib = { "pca__n_components": np.arange(10, 80), "randomforestclassifier__n_estimators": np.arange(50, 500) } rnd_search = RandomizedSearchCV(clf, param_distrib, n_iter=10, cv=3, random_state=42) rnd_search.fit(X_train[:1000], y_train[:1000]) print(rnd_search.best_params_) y_pred = rnd_search.predict(X_test) accuracy_score = accuracy_score(y_pred,y_test) print(accuracy_score)

As shown below, there's quite a lot of distortion:

pca = PCA(n_components=23) X_reduced = pca.fit_transform(X_train, y_train) X_recovered = pca.inverse_transform(X_reduced) plt.figure(figsize=(7, 4)) for idx, X in enumerate((X_train[::2100], X_recovered[::2100])): plt.subplot(1, 2, idx + 1) plt.title(["Original", "Compressed"][idx]) for row in range(5): for col in range(5): plt.imshow(X[row * 5 + col].reshape(28, 28), cmap="binary", vmin=0, vmax=255, extent=(row, row + 1, col, col + 1)) plt.axis([0, 5, 0, 5]) plt.axis("off")

## Flag ML 115.4: 99% of the Variance (5 pts)

Repeat the process above, but change n_iter from 10 to 3, and change the number of training samples used from 1000 to 3000.The flag is the number of dimensions used, covered by a green rectangle in the image below.

Posted 10-6-23

Video added 10-21-23

Title of flag 2 fixed 7-24-24